P.G. Asalkhanov, J.M. Ivania, M.N. Polkowska
- The article proposes a parametric model of optimization of agricultural production using expert estimates characterizing the timeliness of sowing. It is proposed to use estimates obtained by one or a group of experts, which are agronomists, as coefficients of the influence of sowing dates on production parameters. The coefficients for the unknowns in the left-hand parts of the restrictions are described using trends and factor models based on time. One of the variants of the proposed problem of parametric programming was implemented for the CJSC «Irkutsk Seeds» of the Irkutsk District of the Irkutsk Region. The simulation results are given taking into account the expert estimates for two cases: timely and early (or late) sowing.
Key words — parametric programming, expert assessment, timeliness of sowing, agricultural products.
- P. 5-10.
- In space, ionizing radiation is created by several sources. The most important generalized concepts about the degree of the Influence of space plasma is manifested through the electrification of dielectric protective and thermally insulating coatings inside the structure of electronic equipment. The article discusses the main effects of ionizing radiation on the semiconductor components of space communication systems.
Key words — ionizing radiation, basic effects, high-energy nuclear particles, cosmic rays, magnetic field, radiation effects, electron distribution, radio electronic equipment.
- P. 11-16.
A.V. Zvyagintseva, S.A. Sazonova, V.V. Kulneva
- The possible negative impacts on the environment from existing enterprises are examined, the result of which is the deterioration of the environmental situation within the sanitary protection zones. A comprehensive assessment of the impact of the company «EVO» on the environment and a comprehensive analysis of the technology for processing mercury-containing waste was carried out. As a result of such an assessment, the main sources of air pollution were identified. In the technological part, the technological process of processing mercury-containing waste was studied, a production concept was developed, and a material balance of the technological system was drawn up. Measures have been developed to protect atmospheric air. The developed comprehensive measures for atmospheric air protection of the environmental protection system of EVO LLC will contribute to improving the level of environmental safety.
Key words — modeling, mercury-containing wastes, waste processing, measures, atmospheric air, toxic substances, technosphere objects, environmental safety.
- P. 17-26.
A.V. Zvyagintseva, S.A. Sazonova, V.V. Kulneva
- The waste generated during the operation of the thermal electric central, an energy facility, is considered. The analysis of atmospheric pollution by emissions of the Voronezh TPP-1, which uses coal as the main fuel, is carried out. A comparison is made with a thermal power plant using gas as a fuel source. The maximum allowable emission standards for pollutants generated during the use of coal are established and the excess of the MPC value by various types of emissions is shown: dioxide and nitric oxide; fuel oil and NO2 + SO2 ash; sulphurous anhydride and carbon monoxide; soot and coal ash. The size of the Sanitary Protection Zone of TPP-1 was determined. Measures aimed at reducing the negative environmental impact of such energy facilities as combined heat and power plants are proposed.
Key words — modeling, CHP, atmospheric pollution, ecology, MPC, sanitary protection zone, atmosphere protection measures.
- P. 27-34.
A.V. Zvyagintseva, S.A. Sazonova, N.V. Mozgovoj
- Technological processes at thermal power facilities - combined heat and power plants - are examined. The principle of operation of heat power facilities is considered on the example of the Voronezh TPP-1. The equipment is considered, with the help of the rational use of which the required level of ecological safety of the technogenic object can be achieved. Taking into account the peculiarities of the production processes at the Voronezh TPP-1, the most effective set of engineering, technical and environmental measures aimed at reducing the technogenic impact of the TPP on the surrounding city atmosphere is proposed.
Key words — cogeneration plants, heat power engineering, technological processes, atmospheric pollution, harmful emissions, ecology, engineering and technical measures, environmental measures.
- P. 34-41.
V.K. Zolnikov, A.I. Yankov, A.Yu. Kulai, A.L. Savchenko, A.S. Yagodkin, V.I. Antsiferova, S.A. Evdokimova, T.V. Skvortsova, E.A. Maklakova, A.A. Ilunina, O.V. Kvasov
- The article presents the results of studies of ultrafast rectifier diodes intended for use in high-frequency rectifiers, modulators, converters, pulse transducers, limiters and other pulse devices under the influence of radiation. The schemes of measuring the current and voltage of diodes under the influence of special factors are given.
Key words — ultrafast rectifier diodes, radiation, durability, radioelectronics, CMOS technology, time of loss of efficiency.
- P. 42-47.
V.K. Zolnikov, A.I. Yankov, K.A. Chubur, A.Yu. Kulai, V.P. Kryukov, I.I. Strukov, S.A. Grechany, S.A. Evdokimova, A.S. Yagodkin, V.I. Antsiferova, O.V. Kvasov
- The paper deals with the issues of resistance of linear voltage stabilizers to the influence of special factors. The conducted researches are described, electric schemes at measurement of output voltage and current of chips are resulted. The calculated estimates of the resistance of linear voltage stabilizers to the influence of various special factors are also considered.
Key words —resistance, voltage stabilizer, radio electronics, time of loss of efficiency, integrated circuits.
- P. 48-53.
- The technique of crystalline redundancy of ADC and DAC units is considered to increase the survivability of converters in operating conditions. The expediency of backing up the main digital blocks (adders, registers, PLLs), as well as peripheral DACs and comparators used for automatic calibration and calibration of converters is substantiated.
Key words —analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter (DAC), redundancy, blocks, survivability.
- P. 53-58.
- The features and possibilities of using foreign and domestic foundry technologies in the creation of CMOS-ADC for high-speed multichannel DSP systems with increased fault resistance to the effects of TKCH are considered. The architecture and technique of ADC balancing, which provide an increase in the conversion rate when several ADCS operate in the alternating mode, are presented. The technique of double reservation of sources of «weight» currents is considered. The necessity of using an additional current source and dual series-connected CMOS transistors instead of single transistors of the same conductivity type is substantiated. It is noted that the proposed solutions provide effective amortization of the impact of TKCH with the most «dangerous» energies of 20-100 MeV/nucleon.
Key words —analog-to-digital Converter (ADC), digital-to-analog Converter (DAC), digital signal processing (DSP), fault tolerance, heavy charged particles (TCH).
- P. 59-64.
V.V. Lavlinskiy, Yu.Yu. Gromov, V.E. Didrikh, M.A. Shelkovnikov, А.А. Provotorov
- A variant of constructing an error flow simulator in a sequence of data transmitted over the radio channel using a signal with quadrature phase manipulation is proposed. The developed simulator takes into account the features of the implemented in practice coherent reception of signals with multi-position phase manipulation in the transmission of data in a digital communication channel. The adequacy of the results obtained by its use is confirmed in the process of modeling data transmission in a limited frequency resource channel. The expediency of using the proposed error flow simulator is due to the possibility of correlating the error flow parameters with the technical characteristics of the data transmission system and the intensity of interference in the radio channel.
Key words —simulator, error, data, data transmission, data transmission channel, radio channel, phase shift keying, coherent reception, the frequency error, the probability of error.
- P. 65-71.
S.A. Sazonova, S.D. Nikolenko, A.V. Zvyagintseva
- The procedure of forming a transport (parametric) reserve for heating systems of cities and settlements in cases of increasing line diameters with a constant network configuration is considered. For functioning heat supply systems, the formation of a reserve will ensure uninterrupted and safe operation. Safe operation is supposed to be ensured through analysis and prevention of possible emergency situations. The development of mathematical models of the transport reserve is based on the energy equivalent of subscriber subsystems of heating systems, which distinguishes the obtained mathematical models from existing analogues. To evaluate the impact of parametric optimization results on economic indicators, a computational experiment was conducted. As an object of study, the design scheme of a residential microdistrict was considered. The analysis of the obtained results of the computational experiment proved the operability of the obtained mathematical models of transport reservation for functioning heat supply systems. It is possible to make transport reservation for systems of any sizes and configurations or for the studied fragments of these systems. For practical application, it is of interest to calculate the parametric reserve of individual houses that have autonomous boiler rooms.
Key words —mathematical modeling, energy equivalence, heat supply systems, parametric redundancy, safety, design, operation.
- P. 71-77.
A.I. Yankov, K.V. Zolnikov, A.Yu. Kulai, A.L. Savchenko, I.I. Strukov, S.A. Evdokimova, T.V. Skvortsova, A.S. Yagodkin, V.I. Antsiferova, O.N. Kvasov, N.A. Panova, O.V. Fesikova
- The article presents the method of evaluation and results of research Schottky diodes resistance for use in electronic equipment. Studies were carried out to determine the structural and technological reserves for durability. Also in the article the schemes of inclusion of Schottky diodes for measurement of direct reverse current and direct excitation of the diode applied at researches are considered.
Key words —Schottky diodes, radioelectronics, durability, time of loss of operability, catastrophic failure.
- P. 78-83.
A.I. Yankov, K.V. Zolnikov, A.Yu. Kulai, A.L. Savchenko, I.I. Strukov, S.A. Evdokimova, T.V. Skvortsova, A.S. Yagodkin, O.N. Kvasov, N.A. Panova, O.V. Fesikova
- The article describes the study of rectifier diodes for resistance to special factors. The direct reverse current Iobr and the forward voltage of the diode Uobr were considered as a criterion for the performance of diodes. Based on the results of the calculation and experimental evaluation of the resistance of rectifier diodes to special factors, graphical dependences of the reverse current and direct voltage on the value of the special factor are constructed.
Key words —rectifier diode, resistance, electronics, thermal effect, a constant reverse current of the diode, the forward voltage of the diode.
- P. 83-89.